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A CHECKLIST WITH COMMON NAMES OF
THE REPTILES OF THE PERUVIAN LOWER AMAZON

© William W. Lamar
School of Sciences & Mathematics
The University of Texas at Tyler
3900 University Blvd
Tyler, TX 75799

During the past decade we have witnessed an upsurge in the number of people visiting the Amazon Basin of Peru, particularly in the general region of Iquitos. The excellent inventory work performed in the 1970's by James R. Dixon and Pekka Soini (1986. The reptiles of the upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos region, Peru. 2nd ed. Milwaukee Pub. Mus.) is dated and I have been able to expand considerably on their base over the last six years. Specimens herein cited for the first time from Amazonian Peru are vouchered as slides in the collection at the University of Texas at Arlington Collection of Vertebrates. The following list includes 194 taxa that I recognize as actually or potentially occurring in the Iquitos region as of 1998. This area falls entirely within the Departamento de Loreto, Peru, and comprises a partial radius of 500 km, and extends east from Iquitos to Leticia, Colombia, thence south along the Yavarí- Gálvez, Yaquerana river system (Peru-Brazil border) to the community of Requena on the Ucayali River. From this point west to the Intuto vicinity on the Tigre River and back north to Iquitos. The area circumscribed is not biotically defined but rather includes most routes followed by boats hosting eco- tourists and visiting scientists.

Included are 5 orders, 22 families, and 87 genera as follows: turtles (4 families, 7 genera, 15 species); crocodilians (1 family, 2 genera, 4 species); lizards (8 families, 27 genera, 60 species); amphisbaenians (1 family, 2 genera, 3 species); and snakes (8 families, 47 genera, 112 species).

Species likely but not yet taken in the area are indicated by *; those cited or described questionably are indicated by ?; peripheral species that may turn up are indicated by P.

AMPHISBAENIDAE - AMPHISBAENAS TYPHLOPIDAE - BLINDSNAKES
GEKKONIDAE - GECKOS ANILIIDAE - PIPESNAKES
HOPLOCERCIDAE - WOOD LIZARDS, CLUBTAILS BOIDAE - BOAS
IGUANIDAE - IGUANAS COLUBRIDAE - TYPICAL SNAKES
POLYCHROTIDAE - ANOLES, MONKEY LIZARDS VIPERIDAE - FOREST PITVIPERS, LANCEHEADS, BUSHMASTER
TROPIDURIDAE - LEAF LIZARDS, THORNYTAILS, TREE, DIVING LIZARDS ELAPIDAE - CORALSNAKES
GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE - SHADE, CREEK, STREAM, WORM, ROOT, GROUND, SWAMP LIZARDS CROCODYLIDAE - CAIMANS
TEIIDAE - RACERUNNERS, WHIPTAILS, TEGUS, CAIMAN LIZARDS TESTUDINIDAE - TORTOISES
SCINCIDAE - SKINKS KINOSTERNIDAE - MUD TURTLES
ANOMALEPIDIDAE - SLENDER BLINDSNAKES CHELIDAE - MODERN SIDENECKS, TOAD-HEADED TURTLES
LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE - THREADSNAKES PELOMEDUSIDAE - PRIMITIVE SIDENECKS, RIVER TURTLES

 

AMPHISBAENIA - COMMON AMPHISBAENAS

FAMILY AMPHISBAENIDAE - AMPHISBAENAS

Genus Amphisbaena - Amphisbaenas:

GIANT AMPHISBAENA, Amphisbaena alba
MOTTLED AMPHISBAENA, Amphisbaena fuliginosa bassleri

Genus Mesobaena - Dwarf Amphisbaenas:

DWARF AMPHISBAENA, Mesobaena huebneri ? P

 

SQUAMATA - LIZARDS AND SNAKES

SAURIA - LIZARDS

FAMILY GEKKONIDAE - GECKOS

Genus Gonatodes - Streak Lizards:

COLLARED STREAK LIZARD, Gonatodes concinnatus
BROWN-HEADED STREAK LIZARD, Gonatodes hasemani P
AMAZON STREAK LIZARD, Gonatodes humeralis

Genus Hemidactylus - House Geckos:

COMMON HOUSE GECKO, Hemidactylus mabouia

Genus Lepidoblepharis - Dwarf Geckos:

BROWN DWARF GECKO, Lepidoblepharis festae ?
GREATER DWARF GECKO, Lepidoblepharis (giant)
AMAZON DWARF GECKO, Lepidoblepharis heyerorum P
SPOTTED DWARF GECKO, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi

Genus Pseudogonatodes - Pigmy Geckos:

AMAZON PIGMY GECKO, Pseudogonatodes guianensis

Genus Thecadactylus - Turnip-Tailed Geckos:

TURNIP-TAILED GECKO, Thecadactylus rapicaudus

FAMILY HOPLOCERCIDAE - WOOD LIZARDS AND CLUBTAILS

Genus Enyalioides - Wood Lizards:

COFAN WOOD LIZARD, Enyalioides cofanorum ?
AMAZON WOOD LIZARD, Enyalioides laticeps
BROWN WOOD LIZARD, Enyalioides microlepis
HORNED WOOD LIZARD, Enyalioides palpebralis P
BLUE-SPOTTED WOOD LIZARD, Enyalioides praestabilis P

FAMILY IGUANIDAE - IGUANAS

Genus Iguana - Common Iguanas:

GREEN IGUANA, Iguana iguana

FAMILY POLYCHROTIDAE - ANOLES AND MONKEY LIZARDS

Genus Anolis - Anoles:

BLUE-LIPPED ANOLE, Anolis bombiceps
SLENDER ANOLE, Anolis fuscoauratus fuscoauratus
YELLOW-TONGUED ANOLE, Anolis chrysolepis scypheus
BLUE-THROATED ANOLE, Anolis chrysolepis tandae
BARK ANOLE, Anolis ortonii
AMAZON GREEN ANOLE, Anolis punctatus
COMMON FOREST ANOLE, Anolis trachyderma
BANDED TREE ANOLE, Anolis transversalis

Genus Polychrus - Monkey Lizards:

SOUTHERN MONKEY LIZARD, Polychrus liogaster P
COMMON MONKEY LIZARD, Polychrus marmoratus

FAMILY TROPIDURIDAE - LEAF LIZARDS, THORNYTAILS, TREE AND DIVING LIZARDS

Genus Stenocercus - Leaf Lizards:

WESTERN LEAF LIZARD, Stenocercus fimbriatus
PINK-BELLIED LEAF LIZARD, Stenocercus roseiventris *

Genus Tropidurus - Thornytails and Tree Lizards:

SOUTHERN GREEN THORNYTAIL, Tropidurus (Uracentron) azureum guentheri
AMAZON THORNYTAIL, Tropidurus (Uracentron) flaviceps
COLLARED TREE LIZARD, Tropidurus plica
BLUE-LIPPED TREE LIZARD, Tropidurus umbra ochrocollaris

Genus Uranoscodon - Diving Lizards:

DIVING LIZARD, Uranoscodon superciliosus P

FAMILY GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE - SHADE, CREEK, STREAM, WORM, ROOT, GROUND, AND SWAMP LIZARDS

Genus Alopoglossus - Shade Lizards:

KEEL-BELLIED SHADE LIZARD, Alopoglossus atriventris
LARGE-SCALED SHADE LIZARD, Alopoglossus angulatus
SMOOTH-BELLIED SHADE LIZARD, Alopoglossus buckleyi
DRAB SHADE LIZARD, Alopoglossus copii

Genus Arthrosaura - Creek Lizards:

EASTERN CREEK LIZARD, Arthrosaura kockii ?
WESTERN CREEK LIZARD, Arthrosaura reticulata reticulata

Genus Bachia - Worm Lizards:

STRIPED WORM LIZARD, Bachia trisanale trisanale
PERUVIAN WORM LIZARD, Bachia peruana
BROWN WORM LIZARD, Bachia vermiformis

Genus Cercosaura - Shade Lizards:

BLACK-STRIPED SHADE LIZARD, Cercosaura ocellata bassleri

Genus Iphisa - Glossy Shade Lizards:

GLOSSY SHADE LIZARD, Iphisa elegans elegans

Genus Leposoma - Root Lizards:

COMMON ROOT LIZARD, Leposoma parietale
STRIPED ROOT LIZARD, Leposoma percarinatum P
BRAZILIAN ROOT LIZARD, Leposoma snethlagei P,?

Genus Neusticurus - Stream Lizards:

COMMON STREAM LIZARD, Neusticurus ecpleopus

Genus Prionodactylus - Eyed Lizards:

ELEGANT EYED LIZARD, Prionodactylus argulus
WHITE-STRIPED EYED LIZARD, Prionodactylus oshaugnessyi ?

Genus Ptychoglossus - Swamp Lizards:

SLENDER SWAMP LIZARD, Ptychoglossus brevifrontalis

FAMILY TEIIDAE - RACERUNNERS, WHIPTAILS, TEGUS, AND CAIMAN LIZARDS

Genus Ameiva - Racerunners:

AMAZON RACERUNNER, Ameiva ameiva

Genus Crocodilurus - Crocodile Tegus:

CROCODILE TEGU, Crocodilurus lacertinus

Genus Dracaena - Caiman Lizards:

NORTHERN CAIMAN LIZARD, Dracaena guianensis

Genus Kentropyx - Whiptails:

COCHA WHIPTAIL, Kentropyx altamazonica
FOREST WHIPTAIL, Kentropyx pelviceps

Genus Tupinambis - Tegus:

GOLDEN TEGU, Tupinambis teguixin

FAMILY SCINCIDAE - SKINKS

Genus Mabuya - Skinks:

TWO-LINED SKINK, Mabuya bistriata P
BLACK-HANDED SKINK, Mabuya nigropalmata P
BLACK-SPOTTED SKINK, Mabuya nigropunctata

SERPENTES - SNAKES

FAMILY ANOMALEPIDIDAE - SLENDER BLINDSNAKES

Genus Liotyphlops - Slender Blindsnakes:

WHITE-HEADED SLENDER BLINDSNAKE, Liotyphlops sp. *

FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE - THREADSNAKES

Genus Leptotyphlops - Threadsnakes:

WHITE-FRONTED THREADSNAKE, Leptotyphlops albifrons P,?
AMAZONIAN THREADSNAKE, Leptotyphlops diaplocius
BIG-EYED THREADSNAKE, Leptotyphlops macrolepis P
PERUVIAN THREADSNAKE, Leptotyphlops signatus

FAMILY TYPHLOPIDAE - BLINDSNAKES

Genus Typhlops - Blindsnakes:

BLACK BLINDSNAKE, Typhlops brongersmianus
WHITE-NOSED BLINDSNAKE, Typhlops minuisquamus
GIANT BLINDSNAKE, Typhlops reticulatus

FAMILY ANILIIDAE - PIPESNAKES

Genus Anilius - Pipesnakes:

RED PIPESNAKE, Anilius scytale

FAMILY BOIDAE - BOAS

Genus Boa - Common Boas:

RED-TAILED BOA, Boa constrictor constrictor

Genus Corallus - Treeboas:

EMERALD TREEBOA, Corallus caninus
AMAZON TREEBOA, Corallus hortulanus

Genus Epicrates - Rainbow Boas:

COMMON RAINBOW BOA, Epicrates cenchria cf. gaigei

Genus Eunectes - Anacondas:

COMMON ANACONDA, Eunectes murinus murinus

FAMILY COLUBRIDAE - TYPICAL SNAKES

Genus Apostolepis - Wormsnakes:

AMAZON WORMSNAKE, Apostolepis niceforoi P
PERUVIAN WORMSNAKE, Apostolepis nigroterminatus *

Genus Atractus - Earthsnakes:

STRIPED EARTHSNAKE , Atractus alphonsehogei ?
RING-NECKED EARTHSNAKE, Atractus collaris
COLLARED EARTHSNAKE, Atractus cf. collaris
ORNATE EARTHSNAKE, Atractus elaps
BLOTCHED EARTHSNAKE, Atractus flammigerus
WEDGE-TAILED EARTHSNAKE, Atractus latifrons
GIANT EARTHSNAKE, Atractus major
SPOTTED EARTHSNAKE, Atractus microrhynchus
BLACK-BACKED EARTHSNAKE, Atractus poeppigi
RUSTY EARTHSNAKE, Atractus torquatus

Genus Chironius - Whipsnakes:

COMMON WHIPSNAKE, Chironius exoletus
OLIVE WHIPSNAKE, Chironius fuscus [fuscus]
LONG-TAILED WHIPSNAKE, Chironius multiventris multiventris
RUSTY WHIPSNAKE, Chironius scurrulus
GREEN WHIPSNAKE, Chironius sp.

Genus Clelia - Mussuranas:

COMMON MUSSURANA, Clelia [clelia clelia]

Genus Dendrophidion - Forest Racers:

COMMON FOREST RACER, Dendrophidion dendrophis

Genus Dipsas - Thirst Snakes:

ORNATE THIRST SNAKE, Dipsas catesbyi
BIG-HEADED THIRST SNAKE, Dipsas indica indica
RINGED THIRST SNAKE, Dipsas pavonina

Genus Drepanoides - Egg-Eaters:

AMAZON EGG-EATER, Drepanoides anomalus

Genus Drymarchon - Cribos:

COMMON CRIBO, Drymarchon corais corais

Genus Drymobius - Racers:

BLOTCHED RACER, Drymobius rhombifer

Genus Drymoluber - Glossy Racers:

COMMON GLOSSY RACER, Drymoluber dichrous

Genus Erythrolamprus False Coralsnakes:

COMMON FALSE CORALSNAKE, Erythrolamprus aesculapii aesculapii
PINK-NAPED FALSE CORALSNAKE, Erythrolamprus guentheri

Genus Helicops - Watersnakes:

SOUTH AMERICAN WATERSNAKE, Helicops angulatus
PAINTED WATERSNAKE , Helicops hagmanni *
SPOTTED WATERSNAKE, Helicops leopardinus
OLIVE WATERSNAKE, Helicops pastazae
BLACK-CHINNED WATERSNAKE, Helicops polylepis
FOREST WATERSNAKE, Helicops yacu ?

Genus Hydrops - Mudsnakes:

CORAL MUDSNAKE, Hydrops martii
COMMON MUDSNAKE, Hydrops triangularis bassleri

Genus Imantodes - Treesnakes:

BLUNT-HEADED TREESNAKE, Imantodes cenchoa
AMAZON TREESNAKE, Imantodes lentiferus

Genus Leptodeira - Cat-eyed Snakes:

COMMON CAT-EYED SNAKE, Leptodeira annulata annulata
VELVETY CAT-EYED SNAKE, Leptodeira sp.

Genus Leptophis - Parrot Snakes:

BLACK-SKINNED PARROT SNAKE, Leptophis ahaetulla nigromarginatus
BROWN PARROT SNAKE, Leptophis cupreus
TURQUOISE PARROT SNAKE, Leptophis riveti P

Genus Liophis - Swampsnakes:

YELLOW-STRIPED SWAMPSNAKE, Liophis sp.
AMAZON SWAMPSNAKE, Liophis breviceps breviceps
SOUTH AMERICAN SWAMPSNAKE, Liophis cobellus dyticus
WHITE-LIPPED SWAMPSNAKE, Liophis miliaris chrysostomus
STRIPE-TAILED SWAMPSNAKE, Liophis oligolepis ?
COMMON SWAMPSNAKE, Liophis reginae semilineatus
VELVETY SWAMPSNAKE, Liophis typhlus typhlus

Genus Mastigodryas - Racers:

TAN RACER, Mastigodryas boddaertii boddaertii

Genus Ninia - Coffee Snakes:

AMAZON COFFEE SNAKE, Ninia hudsoni *

Genus Oxybelis - Vinesnakes:

BROWN VINESNAKE, Oxybelis aeneus
GREEN VINESNAKE, Oxybelis fulgidus

Genus Oxyrhopus - Calico Snakes:

YELLOW-HEADED CALICO SNAKE, Oxyrhopus formosus
ELEGANT CALICO SNAKE, Oxyrhopus sp
BLACK-HEADED CALICO SNAKE, Oxyrhopus m. melanogenys
WESTERN CALICO SNAKE, Oxyrhopus occipitalis
BANDED CALICO SNAKE, Oxyrhopus petola digitalis
BRAZILIAN CALICO SNAKE, Oxyrhopus trigeminus P

Genus Philodryas - Palmsnakes:

GREEN-BELLIED PALMSNAKE, Philodryas olfersi herbeus P
GREEN PALMSNAKE, Philodryas v. viridissimus

Genus Pseudoboa - Scarletsnakes:

AMAZON SCARLETSNAKE, Pseudoboa coronata

Genus Pseudoeryx - Eel Snakes:

EEL SNAKE, Pseudoeryx plicatilis

Genus Pseustes - Birdsnakes:

COMMON BIRDSNAKE, Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis
GIANT BIRDSNAKE, Pseustes sulphureus sulphureus

Genus Rhinobothryum - Ringed Snakes:

AMAZON RINGED SNAKE, Rhinobothryum lentiginosum

Genus Siphlophis - Liana Snakes:

COMMON LIANA SNAKE, Siphlophis cervinus

Genus Spilotes - Tiger Ratsnakes:

COMMON TIGER RATSNAKE, Spilotes pullatus pullatus

Genus Tantilla - Black-Headed Snakes:

COMMON BLACK-HEADED SNAKE, Tantilla m. melanocephala

Genus Taeniophallus - Groundsnakes:

SHORT-NOSED GROUNDSNAKE, Taeniophallus brevirostris
SPOTTED GROUNDSNAKE, Taeniophallus occipitalis

Genus Thamnodynastes - Mock Vipers:

WESTERN MOCK VIPER, Thamnodynastes "loreto"
COMMON MOCK VIPER, Thamnodynastes pallidus

Genus Tripanurgos - Red-eyed Treesnake:

RED-EYED TREESNAKE, Tripanurgos compressus

Genus Umbrivaga - Moss Snakes:

PIGMY MOSS SNAKE, Umbrivaga pygmaea

Genus Xenodon - False Vipers:

COMMON FALSE VIPER, Xenodon rabdocephalus rabdocephalus
GIANT FALSE VIPER, Xenodon severus

Genus Xenopholis - Flat-headed Snakes:

FLAT-HEADED SNAKE, Xenopholis scalaris

Genus Xenoxybelis - Sharpnose Snakes:

SOUTHERN SHARPNOSE SNAKE, Xenoxybelis boulengeri P
STRIPED SHARPNOSE SNAKE, Xenoxybelis argenteus

FAMILY VIPERIDAE - FOREST-PITVIPERS, LANCEHEADS, BUSHMASTER

Genus Bothriopsis - Forest-Pitvipers:

SHORTNOSE FOREST-PITVIPER, Bothriopsis sp.(albocarinata) P
WESTERN STRIPED FOREST-PITVIPER, Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina
SPECKLED FOREST-PITVIPER, Bothriopsis taeniata taeniata

Genus Bothrops - Lanceheads:

SOUTH AMERICAN LANCEHEAD, Bothrops atrox
VELVETY LANCEHEAD, Bothrops brazili
HOGNOSE LANCEHEAD, Bothrops hyoprora

Genus Lachesis - Bushmasters:

AMAZON BUSHMASTER, Lachesis muta muta

FAMILY ELAPIDAE - CORALSNAKES

Genus Micrurus - Coralsnakes:

ANNELLATED CORALSNAKE, Micrurus "annellatus" P,?
SLENDER CORALSNAKE, Micrurus filiformis
ORANGE-RINGED CORALSNAKE, Micrurus hemprichii ortonii
LANGSDORFF'S CORALSNAKE, Micrurus langsdorffi
SOUTH AMERICAN CORALSNAKE, Micrurus lemniscatus helleri
ANDEAN BLACK-BACKED CORALSNAKE, Micrurus narduccii narduccii P
ORNATE CORALSNAKE, Micrurus ornatissimus *
SOOTY CORALSNAKE, Micrurus putumayensis
PIGMY BLACK-BACKED CORALSNAKE, Micrurus scutiventris
AMAZONIAN CORALSNAKE, Micrurus spixii obscurus
AQUATIC CORALSNAKE, Micrurus surinamensis surinamensis

 

CROCODYLIA - CROCODILES, ALLIGATORS, GHARIALS, AND CAIMANS

FAMILY CROCODYLIDAE - CAIMANS

Genus Caiman - Caimans:

SPECTACLED CAIMAN, Caiman crocodilus ssp.
Black Caiman: BLACK CAIMAN, Caiman niger

Genus Paleosuchus - Dwarf Caimans:

DWARF CAIMAN, Paleosuchus palpebrosus
SMOOTH-FRONTED CAIMAN, Paleosuchus trigonatus

 

TESTUDINES - TORTOISES AND TURTLES

FAMILY TESTUDINIDAE - TORTOISES

Genus Geochelone - Tortoises:

REDFOOT TORTOISE, Geochelone carbonaria P
YELLOWFOOT TORTOISE, Geochelone denticulata

FAMILY KINOSTERNIDAE - MUD TURTLES

Genus Kinosternon - Mud Turtles:

AMAZON MUD TURTLE, Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides

FAMILY CHELIDAE - MODERN SIDENECKS AND TOAD-HEADED TURTLES

Genus Chelus - Matamatas:

AMAZON MATAMATA, Chelus fimbriatus ssp.

Genus Platemys - Twist-necked Turtles:

WESTERN TWIST-NECKED TURTLE, Platemys platycephala melanonota

Genus Phrynops - Toad-headed Turtles:

LESSER TOAD-HEADED TURTLE, Phrynops gibbus
SPOTTED TOAD-HEADED TURTLE, Phrynops geoffroanus *
GREATER TOAD-HEADED TURTLE, Phrynops raniceps
RED TOAD-HEADED TURTLE, Phrynops rufipes P
FOREST TOAD-HEADED TURTLE, Phrynops sp.A
PERUVIAN TOAD-HEADED TURTLE, Phrynops sp.B

FAMILY PELOMEDUSIDAE - RIVER TURTLES (PRIMITIVE SIDENECKS)

Genus Peltocephalus - Big-headed River Turtles:

BIG-HEADED RIVER TURTLE, Peltocephalus dumerilianus

Genus Podocnemis - River Turtles:

SOUTH AMERICAN RIVER TURTLE, Podocnemis expansa
AMAZON RIVER TURTLE, Podocnemis sextuberculata
YELLOW-SPOTTED RIVER TURTLE, Podocnemis unifilis (= cayennensis)


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